MEGAPESCA
TORRY ADVISORY NOTES
File Description Summary
Torry_Advisory_Note_No_21.htm
(163 KB)
TORRY ADVISORY NOTE No. 21
WHICH KIND OF ICE IS BEST?
   

Explains why ice is the best means of cooling fish, outlines the methods of manufacture of block ice and different types of small ice, and emphasise that for ice to be effective it must be ice and not a mixture of ice and water. The properties of crushed block ice, flake ice and tube ice are discussed and compared, with brief reference to seawater ice. Read in conjunction with Notes 15 and 68. The information presented is relevant to many Notes in the series in which aspects of chilling are discussed. Measurements are given in British units; Note 40 gives conversion factors to SI units.

Torry_Advisory_Note_No_36.htm
(196 KB)
TORRY ADVISORY NOTE No. 36
RIGOR IN FISH - THE EFFECT ON QUALITY
 

Explains what rigor (rigor mortis) is and how the time and strength of rigor is affected by species, temperature, condition, etc., mostly in the context of white fish. Describes how rigor can affect quality and processing factors such as shrinkage, texture, drip loss, degree of gaping and suitability for smoking, particularly when freezing fillets. Suggests ways of controlling the effects of rigor and thaw rigor, and lists the advantages and disadvantages of freezing whole fish or fillets at different stages of rigor. More information on gaping can be found in Notes 61 and 90. Measurements are given in British units; Note 40 gives conversion factors to SI units.

Torry_Advisory_Note_No_38.htm
(562 KB)
TORRY ADVISORY NOTE No. 38
THE COMPOSITION OF FISH


Describes the structure and main components of fish muscle, including water, fat, protein, minerals, vitamins and extractives, and explains why composition is important. Tables are included giving water, fat, and protein content and the energy value of over 50 of the most important British commercial species of fish and shellfish, including values for some freshwater species, and some fish products. Other tables show mineral and vitamin constituents in fish. Measurements are given in British units; Note 40 gives conversion factors to SI units.

Torry_Advisory_Note_No_45.htm
(219 KB)
TORRY ADVISORY NOTE No. 45
CLEANING IN THE FISH INDUSTRY


Explains the need for cleaning. Differentiates between detergents and sterilisers and their various uses. Summarises the safety precautions necessary when cleaning with respect to both workers and materials. Briefly describes mechanical cleaning equipment available.

Torry_Advisory_Note_No_68.htm
(188 KB)
TORRY ADVISORY NOTE No. 68
ICEMAKING PLANT
 

This Note provides an introduction to ice manufacture for the prospective purchaser of plant, and should be read in conjunction with Note 21. Describes briefly the design and operation of ice-making plants as guidance for fish processors and fishermen. Discusses space, power and refrigeration requirements, and describes the main types of icemaker. Outlines methods of handling, transporting and storing ice, and sets out the advantages and disadvantages of making ice onboard the vessel at sea.

Torry_Advisory_Note_No_80.htm
(152 KB)
TORRY ADVISORY NOTE No. 80
ROUND WORMS IN FISH


Gives background information on the nature, life history, occurrence and human health hazards of the predominant round worm parasites in fish, the nematodes Phocanema decipiens (cod worm) and Anisakis simplex (herring worm). Describes how to reduce the infestation in fish used as food, and detection by candling. Advises on the conditions required to kill the nematodes, and comments on standards and specifications. Gives information useful for dispelling common misunderstandings of the problem and for dealing with complaints from consumers.

Torry_Advisory_Note_No_91.htm
(209 KB)
TORRY ADVISORY NOTE No. 91
SENSORY ASSESSMENT OF FISH QUALITY
   

In the course of everyday work almost everyone involved in the fish industry from the fisherman to the retailer uses or comes across sensory assessment. Consumers in shops, eating places and homes also use sensory assessment when forming judgements about fish quality. Sensory assessment is, therefore, a widespread and important activity. This Note explains the nature and purpose of sensory assessment, where it is used, how it works, and its advantages and disadvantages compared with non-sensory methods of assessing quality.

Torry_Advisory_Note_No_92.htm
(191 KB)
TORRY ADVISORY NOTE No. 92
NON-SENSORY ASSESSMENT OF FISH QUALITY
  

The eating quality of fish is one of the important attributes that influence the acceptability of fish as food to the consumer. Price, appearance, availability and perceived nutritional value are important also, but if the fish is not good to eat the customer will not buy it again. The quality of fish begins to deteriorate quite soon after capture, and so it is essential that everything possible be done at all stages in the handling of fish to slow down such deterioration. It is important, then, to be able to measure the eating quality of fish at all stages. Methods of measuring quality can be described as sensory or non-sensory. Sensory methods use the senses directly, principally those of taste, smell and sight, in much the same way as the ultimate consumer will, and they are described in more detail in another Note in this series. Non-sensory methods may be chemical, physical or microbiological. This Note deals with chemical and physical methods; the values derived by such tests are often called freshness indices. Microbiological methods can give information on the state of spoilage, but are applied much more in assessing hygiene, safety and conformance with standards.

Torry_Advisory_Note_No_94.htm
(182 KB)
TORRY ADVISORY NOTE No. 94
TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT IN THE FISH INDUSTRY
    

This Note gives advice on how to measure temperature. It deals with the temperature measurement of wet fish and frozen fish during processing and distribution, and also describes how to measure temperature in freezing plants, cold stores and smoking kilns. Special techniques are necessary to measure the temperature of a product in a continuous cooker or in a can while being heat processed: these are not described here. Most readers will already be convinced of the need for measuring temperatures frequently and accurately, and therefore only brief mention is made of the reasons why. The Note gives some guidance on the selection of the proper instruments for different circumstances and, more importantly, suggests how the instruments should be used to obtain accurate and meaningful temperatures.